apache代理模块mod_proxy_html,修改html页面内容的url引用链接

参看apache参考手册proxy相关章节时,无意中发现apche有一个模块,可以实现修改代理页面html里的url引用链接,这正是之前想的一个功能,还真的有。apache实在太全面而强大了。

http://lamp.linux.gov.cn/Apache/ApacheMenu/mod/mod_proxy.html#proxypassreverse

apache中有一个第三方模块可以检查并改写HTML中的URL引用,该模块就是Nick Kew编写的mod_proxy_html

http://lamp.linux.gov.cn/Apache/ApacheMenu/mod/mod_proxy.html#proxypassreverse

从某主机商的虚拟主机上拷出来的apache 主配置文件

从美橙互联虚拟主机上拷出来的apache 主配置文件/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

#
# This is the main Apache server configuration file. It contains the
# configuration directives that give the server its instructions.
# See for detailed information.
# In particular, see
#
# for a discussion of each configuration directive.
#
#
# Do NOT simply read the instructions in here without understanding
# what they do. They're here only as hints or reminders. If you are unsure
# consult the online docs. You have been warned.
#
# The configuration directives are grouped into three basic sections:
# 1. Directives that control the operation of the Apache server process as a
# whole (the 'global environment').
# 2. Directives that define the parameters of the 'main' or 'default' server,
# which responds to requests that aren't handled by a virtual host.
# These directives also provide default values for the settings
# of all virtual hosts.
# 3. Settings for virtual hosts, which allow Web requests to be sent to
# different IP addresses or hostnames and have them handled by the
# same Apache server process.
#
# Configuration and logfile names: If the filenames you specify for many
# of the server's control files begin with "/" (or "drive:/" for Win32), the
# server will use that explicit path. If the filenames do *not* begin
# with "/", the value of ServerRoot is prepended -- so "logs/foo.log"
# with ServerRoot set to "/etc/httpd" will be interpreted by the
# server as "/etc/httpd/logs/foo.log".
#

### Section 1: Global Environment
#
# The directives in this section affect the overall operation of Apache,
# such as the number of concurrent requests it can handle or where it
# can find its configuration files.
#

#
# Don't give away too much information about all the subcomponents
# we are running. Comment out this line if you don't mind remote sites
# finding out what major optional modules you are running
ServerTokens OS

#
# ServerRoot: The top of the directory tree under which the server's
# configuration, error, and log files are kept.
#
# NOTE! If you intend to place this on an NFS (or otherwise network)
# mounted filesystem then please read the LockFile documentation
# (available at );
# you will save yourself a lot of trouble.
#
# Do NOT add a slash at the end of the directory path.
#
ServerRoot "/etc/httpd"

#
# PidFile: The file in which the server should record its process
# identification number when it starts.
#
PidFile run/httpd.pid

#
# Timeout: The number of seconds before receives and sends time out.
#
Timeout 120

#
# KeepAlive: Whether or not to allow persistent connections (more than
# one request per connection). Set to "Off" to deactivate.
#
KeepAlive Off

#
# MaxKeepAliveRequests: The maximum number of requests to allow
# during a persistent connection. Set to 0 to allow an unlimited amount.
# We recommend you leave this number high, for maximum performance.
#
MaxKeepAliveRequests 100

#
# KeepAliveTimeout: Number of seconds to wait for the next request from the
# same client on the same connection.
#
KeepAliveTimeout 15

##
## Server-Pool Size Regulation (MPM specific)
##

# prefork MPM
# StartServers: number of server processes to start
# MinSpareServers: minimum number of server processes which are kept spare
# MaxSpareServers: maximum number of server processes which are kept spare
# ServerLimit: maximum value for MaxClients for the lifetime of the server
# MaxClients: maximum number of server processes allowed to start
# MaxRequestsPerChild: maximum number of requests a server process serves

StartServers 8
MinSpareServers 5
MaxSpareServers 20
ServerLimit 256
MaxClients 256
MaxRequestsPerChild 4000

# worker MPM
# StartServers: initial number of server processes to start
# MaxClients: maximum number of simultaneous client connections
# MinSpareThreads: minimum number of worker threads which are kept spare
# MaxSpareThreads: maximum number of worker threads which are kept spare
# ThreadsPerChild: constant number of worker threads in each server process
# MaxRequestsPerChild: maximum number of requests a server process serves

StartServers 2
MaxClients 150
MinSpareThreads 25
MaxSpareThreads 75
ThreadsPerChild 25
MaxRequestsPerChild 0

#
# Listen: Allows you to bind Apache to specific IP addresses and/or
# ports, in addition to the default. See also the
# directive.
#
# Change this to Listen on specific IP addresses as shown below to
# prevent Apache from glomming onto all bound IP addresses (0.0.0.0)
#
#Listen 12.34.56.78:80
Listen 80

#
# Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) Support
#
# To be able to use the functionality of a module which was built as a DSO you
# have to place corresponding `LoadModule' lines at this location so the
# directives contained in it are actually available _before_ they are used.
# Statically compiled modules (those listed by `httpd -l') do not need
# to be loaded here.
#
# Example:
# LoadModule foo_module modules/mod_foo.so
#
LoadModule auth_basic_module modules/mod_auth_basic.so
LoadModule auth_digest_module modules/mod_auth_digest.so
LoadModule authn_file_module modules/mod_authn_file.so
LoadModule authn_alias_module modules/mod_authn_alias.so
LoadModule authn_anon_module modules/mod_authn_anon.so
LoadModule authn_dbm_module modules/mod_authn_dbm.so
LoadModule authn_default_module modules/mod_authn_default.so
LoadModule authz_host_module modules/mod_authz_host.so
LoadModule authz_user_module modules/mod_authz_user.so
LoadModule authz_owner_module modules/mod_authz_owner.so
LoadModule authz_groupfile_module modules/mod_authz_groupfile.so
LoadModule authz_dbm_module modules/mod_authz_dbm.so
LoadModule authz_default_module modules/mod_authz_default.so
LoadModule ldap_module modules/mod_ldap.so
LoadModule authnz_ldap_module modules/mod_authnz_ldap.so
LoadModule include_module modules/mod_include.so
LoadModule log_config_module modules/mod_log_config.so
LoadModule logio_module modules/mod_logio.so
LoadModule env_module modules/mod_env.so
LoadModule ext_filter_module modules/mod_ext_filter.so
LoadModule mime_magic_module modules/mod_mime_magic.so
LoadModule expires_module modules/mod_expires.so
LoadModule deflate_module modules/mod_deflate.so
LoadModule headers_module modules/mod_headers.so
LoadModule usertrack_module modules/mod_usertrack.so
LoadModule setenvif_module modules/mod_setenvif.so
LoadModule mime_module modules/mod_mime.so
LoadModule dav_module modules/mod_dav.so
LoadModule status_module modules/mod_status.so
LoadModule autoindex_module modules/mod_autoindex.so
LoadModule info_module modules/mod_info.so
LoadModule dav_fs_module modules/mod_dav_fs.so
LoadModule vhost_alias_module modules/mod_vhost_alias.so
LoadModule negotiation_module modules/mod_negotiation.so
LoadModule dir_module modules/mod_dir.so
LoadModule actions_module modules/mod_actions.so
LoadModule speling_module modules/mod_speling.so
LoadModule userdir_module modules/mod_userdir.so
LoadModule alias_module modules/mod_alias.so
LoadModule rewrite_module modules/mod_rewrite.so
LoadModule proxy_module modules/mod_proxy.so
LoadModule proxy_balancer_module modules/mod_proxy_balancer.so
LoadModule proxy_ftp_module modules/mod_proxy_ftp.so
LoadModule proxy_http_module modules/mod_proxy_http.so
LoadModule proxy_connect_module modules/mod_proxy_connect.so
LoadModule cache_module modules/mod_cache.so
LoadModule suexec_module modules/mod_suexec.so
LoadModule disk_cache_module modules/mod_disk_cache.so
LoadModule file_cache_module modules/mod_file_cache.so
LoadModule mem_cache_module modules/mod_mem_cache.so
LoadModule cgi_module modules/mod_cgi.so
LoadModule version_module modules/mod_version.so

#
# The following modules are not loaded by default:
#
#LoadModule cern_meta_module modules/mod_cern_meta.so
#LoadModule asis_module modules/mod_asis.so

#
# Load config files from the config directory "/etc/httpd/conf.d".
#
Include conf.d/*.conf

#
# ExtendedStatus controls whether Apache will generate "full" status
# information (ExtendedStatus On) or just basic information (ExtendedStatus
# Off) when the "server-status" handler is called. The default is Off.
#
#ExtendedStatus On

#
# If you wish httpd to run as a different user or group, you must run
# httpd as root initially and it will switch.
#
# User/Group: The name (or #number) of the user/group to run httpd as.
# . On SCO (ODT 3) use "User nouser" and "Group nogroup".
# . On HPUX you may not be able to use shared memory as nobody, and the
# suggested workaround is to create a user www and use that user.
# NOTE that some kernels refuse to setgid(Group) or semctl(IPC_SET)
# when the value of (unsigned)Group is above 60000;
# don't use Group #-1 on these systems!
#
User apache
Group apache

### Section 2: 'Main' server configuration
#
# The directives in this section set up the values used by the 'main'
# server, which responds to any requests that aren't handled by a
# definition. These values also provide defaults for
# any containers you may define later in the file.
#
# All of these directives may appear inside containers,
# in which case these default settings will be overridden for the
# virtual host being defined.
#

#
# ServerAdmin: Your address, where problems with the server should be
# e-mailed. This address appears on some server-generated pages, such
# as error documents. e.g. admin@your-domain.com
#
ServerAdmin root@localhost

#
# ServerName gives the name and port that the server uses to identify itself.
# This can often be determined automatically, but we recommend you specify
# it explicitly to prevent problems during startup.
#
# If this is not set to valid DNS name for your host, server-generated
# redirections will not work. See also the UseCanonicalName directive.
#
# If your host doesn't have a registered DNS name, enter its IP address here.
# You will have to access it by its address anyway, and this will make
# redirections work in a sensible way.
#
#ServerName www.example.com:80

#
# UseCanonicalName: Determines how Apache constructs self-referencing
# URLs and the SERVER_NAME and SERVER_PORT variables.
# When set "Off", Apache will use the Hostname and Port supplied
# by the client. When set "On", Apache will use the value of the
# ServerName directive.
#
UseCanonicalName Off

#
# DocumentRoot: The directory out of which you will serve your
# documents. By default, all requests are taken from this directory, but
# symbolic links and aliases may be used to point to other locations.
#
DocumentRoot "/var/www/html"

#
# Each directory to which Apache has access can be configured with respect
# to which services and features are allowed and/or disabled in that
# directory (and its subdirectories).
#
# First, we configure the "default" to be a very restrictive set of
# features.
#

Options FollowSymLinks
AllowOverride None

#
# Note that from this point forward you must specifically allow
# particular features to be enabled - so if something's not working as
# you might expect, make sure that you have specifically enabled it
# below.
#

#
# This should be changed to whatever you set DocumentRoot to.
#

#
# Possible values for the Options directive are "None", "All",
# or any combination of:
# Indexes Includes FollowSymLinks SymLinksifOwnerMatch ExecCGI MultiViews
#
# Note that "MultiViews" must be named *explicitly* --- "Options All"
# doesn't give it to you.
#
# The Options directive is both complicated and important. Please see
# http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/mod/core.html#options
# for more information.
#
Options Indexes FollowSymLinks

#
# AllowOverride controls what directives may be placed in .htaccess files.
# It can be "All", "None", or any combination of the keywords:
# Options FileInfo AuthConfig Limit
#
AllowOverride None

#
# Controls who can get stuff from this server.
#
Order allow,deny
Allow from all

#
# UserDir: The name of the directory that is appended onto a user's home
# directory if a ~user request is received.
#
# The path to the end user account 'public_html' directory must be
# accessible to the webserver userid. This usually means that ~userid
# must have permissions of 711, ~userid/public_html must have permissions
# of 755, and documents contained therein must be world-readable.
# Otherwise, the client will only receive a "403 Forbidden" message.
#
# See also: http://httpd.apache.org/docs/misc/FAQ.html#forbidden
#

#
# UserDir is disabled by default since it can confirm the presence
# of a username on the system (depending on home directory
# permissions).
#
UserDir disable

#
# To enable requests to /~user/ to serve the user's public_html
# directory, remove the "UserDir disable" line above, and uncomment
# the following line instead:
#
#UserDir public_html

#
# Control access to UserDir directories. The following is an example
# for a site where these directories are restricted to read-only.
#
#
# AllowOverride FileInfo AuthConfig Limit
# Options MultiViews Indexes SymLinksIfOwnerMatch IncludesNoExec
# # Order allow,deny
# Allow from all
# # # Order deny,allow
# Deny from all
# #

#
# DirectoryIndex: sets the file that Apache will serve if a directory
# is requested.
#
# The index.html.var file (a type-map) is used to deliver content-
# negotiated documents. The MultiViews Option can be used for the
# same purpose, but it is much slower.
#
DirectoryIndex index.html index.html.var

#
# AccessFileName: The name of the file to look for in each directory
# for additional configuration directives. See also the AllowOverride
# directive.
#
AccessFileName .htaccess

#
# The following lines prevent .htaccess and .htpasswd files from being
# viewed by Web clients.
#

Order allow,deny
Deny from all

#
# TypesConfig describes where the mime.types file (or equivalent) is
# to be found.
#
TypesConfig /etc/mime.types

#
# DefaultType is the default MIME type the server will use for a document
# if it cannot otherwise determine one, such as from filename extensions.
# If your server contains mostly text or HTML documents, "text/plain" is
# a good value. If most of your content is binary, such as applications
# or images, you may want to use "application/octet-stream" instead to
# keep browsers from trying to display binary files as though they are
# text.
#
DefaultType text/plain

#
# The mod_mime_magic module allows the server to use various hints from the
# contents of the file itself to determine its type. The MIMEMagicFile
# directive tells the module where the hint definitions are located.
#

# MIMEMagicFile /usr/share/magic.mime
MIMEMagicFile conf/magic

#
# HostnameLookups: Log the names of clients or just their IP addresses
# e.g., www.apache.org (on) or 204.62.129.132 (off).
# The default is off because it'd be overall better for the net if people
# had to knowingly turn this feature on, since enabling it means that
# each client request will result in AT LEAST one lookup request to the
# nameserver.
#
HostnameLookups Off

#
# EnableMMAP: Control whether memory-mapping is used to deliver
# files (assuming that the underlying OS supports it).
# The default is on; turn this off if you serve from NFS-mounted
# filesystems. On some systems, turning it off (regardless of
# filesystem) can improve performance; for details, please see
# http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/mod/core.html#enablemmap
#
#EnableMMAP off

#
# EnableSendfile: Control whether the sendfile kernel support is
# used to deliver files (assuming that the OS supports it).
# The default is on; turn this off if you serve from NFS-mounted
# filesystems. Please see
# http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/mod/core.html#enablesendfile
#
#EnableSendfile off

#
# ErrorLog: The location of the error log file.
# If you do not specify an ErrorLog directive within a
# container, error messages relating to that virtual host will be
# logged here. If you *do* define an error logfile for a
# container, that host's errors will be logged there and not here.
#
ErrorLog logs/error_log

#
# LogLevel: Control the number of messages logged to the error_log.
# Possible values include: debug, info, notice, warn, error, crit,
# alert, emerg.
#
LogLevel warn

#
# The following directives define some format nicknames for use with
# a CustomLog directive (see below).
#
LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"" combined
LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b" common
LogFormat "%{Referer}i -> %U" referer
LogFormat "%{User-agent}i" agent

# "combinedio" includes actual counts of actual bytes received (%I) and sent (%O); this
# requires the mod_logio module to be loaded.
#LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\" %I %O" combinedio

#
# The location and format of the access logfile (Common Logfile Format).
# If you do not define any access logfiles within a
# container, they will be logged here. Contrariwise, if you *do*
# define per- access logfiles, transactions will be
# logged therein and *not* in this file.
#
#CustomLog logs/access_log common

#
# If you would like to have separate agent and referer logfiles, uncomment
# the following directives.
#
#CustomLog logs/referer_log referer
#CustomLog logs/agent_log agent

#
# For a single logfile with access, agent, and referer information
# (Combined Logfile Format), use the following directive:
#
CustomLog logs/access_log combined

#
# Optionally add a line containing the server version and virtual host
# name to server-generated pages (internal error documents, FTP directory
# listings, mod_status and mod_info output etc., but not CGI generated
# documents or custom error documents).
# Set to "EMail" to also include a mailto: link to the ServerAdmin.
# Set to one of: On | Off | EMail
#
ServerSignature On

#
# Aliases: Add here as many aliases as you need (with no limit). The format is
# Alias fakename realname
#
# Note that if you include a trailing / on fakename then the server will
# require it to be present in the URL. So "/icons" isn't aliased in this
# example, only "/icons/". If the fakename is slash-terminated, then the
# realname must also be slash terminated, and if the fakename omits the
# trailing slash, the realname must also omit it.
#
# We include the /icons/ alias for FancyIndexed directory listings. If you
# do not use FancyIndexing, you may comment this out.
#
Alias /icons/ "/var/www/icons/"
Options Indexes MultiViews
AllowOverride None
Order allow,deny
Allow from all

#
# WebDAV module configuration section.
#

# Location of the WebDAV lock database.
DAVLockDB /var/lib/dav/lockdb

#
# ScriptAlias: This controls which directories contain server scripts.
# ScriptAliases are essentially the same as Aliases, except that
# documents in the realname directory are treated as applications and
# run by the server when requested rather than as documents sent to the client.
# The same rules about trailing "/" apply to ScriptAlias directives as to
# Alias.
#
ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ "/var/www/cgi-bin/"

#
# "/var/www/cgi-bin" should be changed to whatever your ScriptAliased
# CGI directory exists, if you have that configured.
#

AllowOverride None
Options None
Order allow,deny
Allow from all

#
# Redirect allows you to tell clients about documents which used to exist in
# your server's namespace, but do not anymore. This allows you to tell the
# clients where to look for the relocated document.
# Example:
# Redirect permanent /foo http://www.example.com/bar

#
# Directives controlling the display of server-generated directory listings.
#

#
# IndexOptions: Controls the appearance of server-generated directory
# listings.
#
IndexOptions FancyIndexing VersionSort NameWidth=* HTMLTable

#
# AddIcon* directives tell the server which icon to show for different
# files or filename extensions. These are only displayed for
# FancyIndexed directories.
#
AddIconByEncoding (CMP,/icons/compressed.gif) x-compress x-gzip

AddIconByType (TXT,/icons/text.gif) text/*
AddIconByType (IMG,/icons/image2.gif) image/*
AddIconByType (SND,/icons/sound2.gif) audio/*
AddIconByType (VID,/icons/movie.gif) video/*

AddIcon /icons/binary.gif .bin .exe
AddIcon /icons/binhex.gif .hqx
AddIcon /icons/tar.gif .tar
AddIcon /icons/world2.gif .wrl .wrl.gz .vrml .vrm .iv
AddIcon /icons/compressed.gif .Z .z .tgz .gz .zip
AddIcon /icons/a.gif .ps .ai .eps
AddIcon /icons/layout.gif .html .shtml .htm .pdf
AddIcon /icons/text.gif .txt
AddIcon /icons/c.gif .c
AddIcon /icons/p.gif .pl .py
AddIcon /icons/f.gif .for
AddIcon /icons/dvi.gif .dvi
AddIcon /icons/uuencoded.gif .uu
AddIcon /icons/script.gif .conf .sh .shar .csh .ksh .tcl
AddIcon /icons/tex.gif .tex
AddIcon /icons/bomb.gif core

AddIcon /icons/back.gif ..
AddIcon /icons/hand.right.gif README
AddIcon /icons/folder.gif ^^DIRECTORY^^
AddIcon /icons/blank.gif ^^BLANKICON^^

#
# DefaultIcon is which icon to show for files which do not have an icon
# explicitly set.
#
DefaultIcon /icons/unknown.gif

#
# AddDescription allows you to place a short description after a file in
# server-generated indexes. These are only displayed for FancyIndexed
# directories.
# Format: AddDescription "description" filename
#
#AddDescription "GZIP compressed document" .gz
#AddDescription "tar archive" .tar
#AddDescription "GZIP compressed tar archive" .tgz

#
# ReadmeName is the name of the README file the server will look for by
# default, and append to directory listings.
#
# HeaderName is the name of a file which should be prepended to
# directory indexes.
ReadmeName README.html
HeaderName HEADER.html

#
# IndexIgnore is a set of filenames which directory indexing should ignore
# and not include in the listing. Shell-style wildcarding is permitted.
#
IndexIgnore .??* *~ *# HEADER* README* RCS CVS *,v *,t

#
# DefaultLanguage and AddLanguage allows you to specify the language of
# a document. You can then use content negotiation to give a browser a
# file in a language the user can understand.
#
# Specify a default language. This means that all data
# going out without a specific language tag (see below) will
# be marked with this one. You probably do NOT want to set
# this unless you are sure it is correct for all cases.
#
# * It is generally better to not mark a page as
# * being a certain language than marking it with the wrong
# * language!
#
# DefaultLanguage nl
#
# Note 1: The suffix does not have to be the same as the language
# keyword --- those with documents in Polish (whose net-standard
# language code is pl) may wish to use "AddLanguage pl .po" to
# avoid the ambiguity with the common suffix for perl scripts.
#
# Note 2: The example entries below illustrate that in some cases
# the two character 'Language' abbreviation is not identical to
# the two character 'Country' code for its country,
# E.g. 'Danmark/dk' versus 'Danish/da'.
#
# Note 3: In the case of 'ltz' we violate the RFC by using a three char
# specifier. There is 'work in progress' to fix this and get
# the reference data for rfc1766 cleaned up.
#
# Catalan (ca) - Croatian (hr) - Czech (cs) - Danish (da) - Dutch (nl)
# English (en) - Esperanto (eo) - Estonian (et) - French (fr) - German (de)
# Greek-Modern (el) - Hebrew (he) - Italian (it) - Japanese (ja)
# Korean (ko) - Luxembourgeois* (ltz) - Norwegian Nynorsk (nn)
# Norwegian (no) - Polish (pl) - Portugese (pt)
# Brazilian Portuguese (pt-BR) - Russian (ru) - Swedish (sv)
# Simplified Chinese (zh-CN) - Spanish (es) - Traditional Chinese (zh-TW)
#
AddLanguage ca .ca
AddLanguage cs .cz .cs
AddLanguage da .dk
AddLanguage de .de
AddLanguage el .el
AddLanguage en .en
AddLanguage eo .eo
AddLanguage es .es
AddLanguage et .et
AddLanguage fr .fr
AddLanguage he .he
AddLanguage hr .hr
AddLanguage it .it
AddLanguage ja .ja
AddLanguage ko .ko
AddLanguage ltz .ltz
AddLanguage nl .nl
AddLanguage nn .nn
AddLanguage no .no
AddLanguage pl .po
AddLanguage pt .pt
AddLanguage pt-BR .pt-br
AddLanguage ru .ru
AddLanguage sv .sv
AddLanguage zh-CN .zh-cn
AddLanguage zh-TW .zh-tw

#
# LanguagePriority allows you to give precedence to some languages
# in case of a tie during content negotiation.
#
# Just list the languages in decreasing order of preference. We have
# more or less alphabetized them here. You probably want to change this.
#
LanguagePriority en ca cs da de el eo es et fr he hr it ja ko ltz nl nn no pl pt pt-BR ru sv zh-CN zh-TW

#
# ForceLanguagePriority allows you to serve a result page rather than
# MULTIPLE CHOICES (Prefer) [in case of a tie] or NOT ACCEPTABLE (Fallback)
# [in case no accepted languages matched the available variants]
#
ForceLanguagePriority Prefer Fallback

#
# Specify a default charset for all content served; this enables
# interpretation of all content as UTF-8 by default. To use the
# default browser choice (ISO-8859-1), or to allow the META tags
# in HTML content to override this choice, comment out this
# directive:
#
AddDefaultCharset Off

#
# AddType allows you to add to or override the MIME configuration
# file mime.types for specific file types.
#
#AddType application/x-tar .tgz

#
# AddEncoding allows you to have certain browsers uncompress
# information on the fly. Note: Not all browsers support this.
# Despite the name similarity, the following Add* directives have nothing
# to do with the FancyIndexing customization directives above.
#
#AddEncoding x-compress .Z
#AddEncoding x-gzip .gz .tgz

# If the AddEncoding directives above are commented-out, then you
# probably should define those extensions to indicate media types:
#
AddType application/x-compress .Z
AddType application/x-gzip .gz .tgz

#
# AddHandler allows you to map certain file extensions to "handlers":
# actions unrelated to filetype. These can be either built into the server
# or added with the Action directive (see below)
#
# To use CGI scripts outside of ScriptAliased directories:
# (You will also need to add "ExecCGI" to the "Options" directive.)
#
#AddHandler cgi-script .cgi

#
# For files that include their own HTTP headers:
#
#AddHandler send-as-is asis

#
# For type maps (negotiated resources):
# (This is enabled by default to allow the Apache "It Worked" page
# to be distributed in multiple languages.)
#
AddHandler type-map var

#
# Filters allow you to process content before it is sent to the client.
#
# To parse .shtml files for server-side includes (SSI):
# (You will also need to add "Includes" to the "Options" directive.)
#
AddType text/html .shtml
AddOutputFilter INCLUDES .shtml

#
# Action lets you define media types that will execute a script whenever
# a matching file is called. This eliminates the need for repeated URL
# pathnames for oft-used CGI file processors.
# Format: Action media/type /cgi-script/location
# Format: Action handler-name /cgi-script/location
#

#
# Customizable error responses come in three flavors:
# 1) plain text 2) local redirects 3) external redirects
#
# Some examples:
#ErrorDocument 500 "The server made a boo boo."
#ErrorDocument 404 /missing.html
#ErrorDocument 404 "/cgi-bin/missing_handler.pl"
#ErrorDocument 402 http://www.example.com/subscription_info.html
#

#
# Putting this all together, we can internationalize error responses.
#
# We use Alias to redirect any /error/HTTP_.html.var response to
# our collection of by-error message multi-language collections. We use
# includes to substitute the appropriate text.
#
# You can modify the messages' appearance without changing any of the
# default HTTP_.html.var files by adding the line:
#
# Alias /error/include/ "/your/include/path/"
#
# which allows you to create your own set of files by starting with the
# /var/www/error/include/ files and
# copying them to /your/include/path/, even on a per-VirtualHost basis.
#

Alias /error/ "/var/www/error/"

AllowOverride None
Options IncludesNoExec
AddOutputFilter Includes html
AddHandler type-map var
Order allow,deny
Allow from all
LanguagePriority en es de fr
ForceLanguagePriority Prefer Fallback

# ErrorDocument 400 /error/HTTP_BAD_REQUEST.html.var
# ErrorDocument 401 /error/HTTP_UNAUTHORIZED.html.var
# ErrorDocument 403 /error/HTTP_FORBIDDEN.html.var
# ErrorDocument 404 /error/HTTP_NOT_FOUND.html.var
# ErrorDocument 405 /error/HTTP_METHOD_NOT_ALLOWED.html.var
# ErrorDocument 408 /error/HTTP_REQUEST_TIME_OUT.html.var
# ErrorDocument 410 /error/HTTP_GONE.html.var
# ErrorDocument 411 /error/HTTP_LENGTH_REQUIRED.html.var
# ErrorDocument 412 /error/HTTP_PRECONDITION_FAILED.html.var
# ErrorDocument 413 /error/HTTP_REQUEST_ENTITY_TOO_LARGE.html.var
# ErrorDocument 414 /error/HTTP_REQUEST_URI_TOO_LARGE.html.var
# ErrorDocument 415 /error/HTTP_UNSUPPORTED_MEDIA_TYPE.html.var
# ErrorDocument 500 /error/HTTP_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR.html.var
# ErrorDocument 501 /error/HTTP_NOT_IMPLEMENTED.html.var
# ErrorDocument 502 /error/HTTP_BAD_GATEWAY.html.var
# ErrorDocument 503 /error/HTTP_SERVICE_UNAVAILABLE.html.var
# ErrorDocument 506 /error/HTTP_VARIANT_ALSO_VARIES.html.var

#
# The following directives modify normal HTTP response behavior to
# handle known problems with browser implementations.
#
BrowserMatch "Mozilla/2" nokeepalive
BrowserMatch "MSIE 4\.0b2;" nokeepalive downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0
BrowserMatch "RealPlayer 4\.0" force-response-1.0
BrowserMatch "Java/1\.0" force-response-1.0
BrowserMatch "JDK/1\.0" force-response-1.0

#
# The following directive disables redirects on non-GET requests for
# a directory that does not include the trailing slash. This fixes a
# problem with Microsoft WebFolders which does not appropriately handle
# redirects for folders with DAV methods.
# Same deal with Apple's DAV filesystem and Gnome VFS support for DAV.
#
BrowserMatch "Microsoft Data Access Internet Publishing Provider" redirect-carefully
BrowserMatch "MS FrontPage" redirect-carefully
BrowserMatch "^WebDrive" redirect-carefully
BrowserMatch "^WebDAVFS/1.[0123]" redirect-carefully
BrowserMatch "^gnome-vfs/1.0" redirect-carefully
BrowserMatch "^XML Spy" redirect-carefully
BrowserMatch "^Dreamweaver-WebDAV-SCM1" redirect-carefully

#
# Allow server status reports generated by mod_status,
# with the URL of http://servername/server-status
# Change the ".example.com" to match your domain to enable.
#
#
# SetHandler server-status
# Order deny,allow
# Deny from all
# Allow from .example.com
#

#
# Allow remote server configuration reports, with the URL of
# http://servername/server-info (requires that mod_info.c be loaded).
# Change the ".example.com" to match your domain to enable.
#
#
# SetHandler server-info
# Order deny,allow
# Deny from all
# Allow from .example.com
#

#
# Proxy Server directives. Uncomment the following lines to
# enable the proxy server:
#
#
#ProxyRequests On
#
# # Order deny,allow
# Deny from all
# Allow from .example.com
#

#
# Enable/disable the handling of HTTP/1.1 "Via:" headers.
# ("Full" adds the server version; "Block" removes all outgoing Via: headers)
# Set to one of: Off | On | Full | Block
#
#ProxyVia On

#
# To enable a cache of proxied content, uncomment the following lines.
# See http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/mod/mod_cache.html for more details.
#
#
# CacheEnable disk /
# CacheRoot "/var/cache/mod_proxy"
#
#

#
# End of proxy directives.

### Section 3: Virtual Hosts
#
# VirtualHost: If you want to maintain multiple domains/hostnames on your
# machine you can setup VirtualHost containers for them. Most configurations
# use only name-based virtual hosts so the server doesn't need to worry about
# IP addresses. This is indicated by the asterisks in the directives below.
#
# Please see the documentation at
#
# for further details before you try to setup virtual hosts.
#
# You may use the command line option '-S' to verify your virtual host
# configuration.

#
# Use name-based virtual hosting.
#
NameVirtualHost *:80
#
# NOTE: NameVirtualHost cannot be used without a port specifier
# (e.g. :80) if mod_ssl is being used, due to the nature of the
# SSL protocol.
#

#
# VirtualHost example:
# Almost any Apache directive may go into a VirtualHost container.
# The first VirtualHost section is used for requests without a known
# server name.
#
#
# ServerAdmin webmaster@dummy-host.example.com
# DocumentRoot /www/docs/dummy-host.example.com
# ServerName dummy-host.example.com
# ErrorLog logs/dummy-host.example.com-error_log
# CustomLog logs/dummy-host.example.com-access_log common
#

DocumentRoot /var/www/html
ServerName localhost

Include vhost.d/*.conf

apache 虚拟主机配置文件/etc/httpd/vhost.d/web_user_foobar.ini

<VirtualHost *:80>
SuexecUserGroup web_user_foobar web_user_foobar
DocumentRoot /var/www/virtual/web_user_foobar/home/wwwroot
ServerName web_user_foobar.w69-e0.ezwebtest.com
ServerAlias www.web_user_foobar.com web_user_foobar.com
DirectoryIndex index.html default.htm default.html index.htm default.asp index.asp index.php
ScriptAlias /php5-cgi /var/www/virtual/web_user_foobar/bin/php-cgi
<Directory /var/www/virtual/web_user_foobar/home/wwwroot>
AddHandler php5-cgi .php
Action php5-cgi /php5-cgi
AllowOverride All
Options -Indexes -ExecCGI Includes IncludesNOEXEC FollowSymLinks
Allow from all
</Directory>

ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /var/www/virtual/web_user_foobar/home/cgi-bin/
<Directory /var/www/virtual/web_user_foobar/home/cgi-bin/>
Options -Indexes ExecCGI
AllowOverride AuthConfig FileInfo
Allow from all
</Directory>

Alias /error /var/www/virtual/web_user_foobar/home/error
<Directory /var/www/virtual/web_user_foobar/home/error>
AllowOverride None
Options None
Allow from all
</Directory>
ErrorDocument 404 /error/404.html
ErrorDocument 403 /error/403.html
ErrorDocument 500 /error/500.html

CustomLog "|/usr/sbin/rotatelogs -l /var/www/virtual/web_user_foobar/home/logs/web_user_foobar-access_log.%Y.%m.%d 86400" common
ErrorLog "|/usr/sbin/rotatelogs -l /var/www/virtual/web_user_foobar/home/logs/web_user_foobar-error_log.%Y.%m.%d 86400"

CBandScoreboard /var/www/virtual/web_user_foobar/home/logs/bandscore
CBandExceededURL http://info.idccenter.net/err/exceeded.html
CBandLimit 10240Mi
CBandPeriod 30D
CBandSpeed 0 0 0
<Location /cband-stat>
SetHandler cband-status-me
</Location>
</VirtualHost>

nginx 1.2.0启用gzip http压缩手记

本站的web在vps上的nginx里跑,之前为简单其见,没有配置http gzip压缩支持,但vps有时网络抽风而速度很慢,于是想起来配置gzip压缩支持。

网上有很多nginx启用gzip压缩的文章,但还是上官方看文档是最权威准确的。这两个页面:

http://wiki.nginx.org/HttpGzipModule
http://wiki.nginx.org/NginxHttpGzipStaticModule

nginx官方文档很易懂,先给一个典型的配置实例,下面再详讲每条指令,感觉相当亲切。

查看ngix编译参考,是否启用了gzip模块,运行命令:

/path/to/binary/nginx -V
(我的nginx在PATH目录里,故命令中可以省略nginx所在的目录),写为nginx -t 即可,下文从略写

注意其中是否 --with-http_gzip_static_module,如果没有,那就自己编译一次吧,下面是我的配置参数,供参考。最后的--add-module=../nginx-lib/nginx-upload-progress-module-v0.9.0/是nginx上传进度模块,nginx第三方模块,源码放置在../nginx-lib/nginx-upload-progress-module-v0.9.0目录,如果你没有下载过该模块,去掉它就可以了。

nginx version: nginx/1.2.0
configure arguments: --prefix=/usr/local/nginx --sbin-path=/usr/local/sbin/nginx --conf-path=/usr/local/conf/nginx/nginx.conf --error-log-path=/var/log/nginx/error.log --pid-path=/var/run/nginx.pid --lock-path=/var/run/nginx.lock --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_gzip_static_module --with-http_sub_module --with-http_flv_module --with-http_mp4_module --with-http_random_index_module --with-cpu-opt=pentium4 --add-module=../nginx-lib/nginx-upload-progress-module-v0.9.0/

修改nginx配置文件,nginx配置文件目录参看nginx配置参数里的--conf-path。按我的配置,修改/usr/local/conf/nginx/nginx.conf,在http节点加入gzip配置即可。

    gzip_static on;
    gzip_http_version 1.1;
    gzip_proxied expired no-cache no-store private auth;
    gzip_disable "MSIE [1-6]\.";
    gzip_vary on;

    gzip on;
    gzip_min_length 1000;
    gzip_types text/plain application/xml text/css text/javascript text/xml;

测试配置是否有语法错误

nginx -t

输出消息

nginx: the configuration file /usr/local/conf/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /usr/local/conf/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful

确认无误,重新加载nginx配置

nginx -s reload

检测gzip压缩是否正常工作,使用live http headers ——firefox的一款插件,看http头是是否有这样一行:Content-Encoding: gzip

也可以使用firefox的firebug插件 的“网络”功能看,或者使用第三方的在线检测工具,如http://tool.chinaz.com/Gzips/

简单命令对mysql数据库的备份与还原

使用phpMyAdmin备份mysql数据库

备份mysql的最简单方法是的使用phpMyAdmin的“导出”功能,导出成sql文件,不用管其它选项,只管导出就可以,这就是mysql标准的备份文件。

导出时,一般不要勾选压缩选项。因为如果备份文件大到一定程度,就会因为php分配不到足够内存而死掉;经验是50M以上的表,就不要压缩了。这是个蛋疼的事情:小文件不值得压缩,大了反而压缩不动。所以不压缩就是了。

还原mysql数据库

要还原mysql数据库时,使用phpMyAdmin是个简单的方法,但更容易因为备份文件过大而超过php内存限制而死掉,这时你会有种痛不欲生的感觉。

推荐使用命令行连接mysql,以source命令导入还原,这个导入过程是件愉悦的事情。

不幸的是如果你在windows下,会比较啰嗦:

把你的mysql备份文件放到一个比较浅的目录里,比如放在 E:\120507.sql ,你要还原的数据库叫mydata

找到你的mysql安装在哪里,假如你的mysql安装在D:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.0 ,那么你的mysql命令行客户端将位于D:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.0\bin ,按着按下面的步骤来:

  • 1. 开始-运行,输入cmd,确定,你将进入命令行界面
  • 2. 输入 d: 然后回车,进入D盘
  • 3. 输入cd "D:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.0\bin" 再回车(注意,如果路径中有空格,那引号是必须的)
  • 4. 输入mysql -uroot -p123456 --default-character-set=utf8 --max_allowed_packet=16777216 --net_buffer_length=16384 回车(假设你的mysql的root用户密码是123456, 注意,这里u与p后面带不带空格都可以,我习惯不带; 你只需改这行命令里的密码部分,其它不需要改变,照用即可)
  • 你将看到

    注意到光标闪烁处的mysql> ,这就说明已经成功连接到本机的mysql数据库。
  • 输入use mydata 回车 ,进入mydata数据库
  • 输入source E:\120507.sql 回车,你将看到一行行快速滚动的信息。滚动完毕就导入完成了。
  • 输入exit驾车即可。回到phpmyadmin里看导入的结果吧.

核心回顾

mysql备份,使用phpMyAdmin,导出需要的表,或整个数据库,注意最好不要勾选压缩

还原,使用命令行客户端连上mysql服务器,mysql -uroot -p123456 --default-character-set=utf8 --max_allowed_packet=16777216 --net_buffer_length=16384,然后use mydata进入需要还原的数据库,运行source x:\bakup_file.sql 导入备份。

linux下通过acl配置灵活目录文件权限(可用于ftp,web服务器的用户权限控制)

linux 本身的ugo rwx的权限,对于精确的权限控制很是力不从心的,acl是一个好东西,有了它可以很完美且优雅的控制目录权限。acl的基础知识,这里不再详述,有兴趣可以参看此文(通过实践学习linux ACL基本用法/Linux ACL 体验)

一个很可能遇到的实际问题:

linux下的web站点,该站点开启ftp上传下载;web与ftp以不同的用户运行,分别是web, ftp.

该目录 ./html 结构大致如下

(shell当前目录为/var/www/html, 下同)

$ls
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4.0K May  7 07:51 admin
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4.0K May  7 07:51 image
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4.0K May  7 07:51 lib
drwxrwxrwx 2 root root 4.0K May  7 07:51 upload
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    0 May  7 07:52 index.php
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    0 May  7 07:52 config.inc.php

为了web的安全其见,其中

upload目录为web后台上传文件的目录,权限为777;其它文件(目录)权限755(这里使用555也是可以的)

这样web是安全了,但问题也来了

ftp用户就没有写入权限了,将无法通过ftp修改web程序。

如果能实现以下这样的功能就好了:

web用户还是以上权限,不多赋权;但ftp用户可以对这里的所有目录、子目录(及其中文件)都有完全的权限

这种情况下,就要派acl上场了。

对于web用户的权限,保持不变。而针对ftp用户设置几条acl规则:

setfacl -R -m u:ftp:rwx .

大意是,对当前目录 . 递归设置acl规则 u:ftp:rwx ,
u:ftp:rwx这条规则是针对指定用户设定的(u);该用户名为ftp; 权限规则是rwx

翻译成人类语言就是说:给当前目录及其子目录、文件设置acl规则,让用户ftp拥有完全权限。

太简单了,这样就完成搞定了!

差不多了,不过这里还有一个问题,对于以后新建的目录里,ftp用户可能并没有rwx权限,这是为什么呢?因为对于新建目录,它并没有相应的acl规则,而是沿用022的默认umask, 结果就是新文件的755权限。

这里就要用默认acl来实现,简单说来,就是让新建的目录,都自动继承一个默认的acl规则,让ftp用户拥有rwx权限。

setfacl -R -d --set u:ftp:rwx .

还是一条设置acl的命令(setacl); -R 是递归执行,这很简单。重点在 -d --set u:ftp:rwx 上。 -d,指后面是一条default acl规则,规则是  --set u:ftp:rwx, 对当前目录 . 设置规则

用人类的语言讲,就是让所有新建目录都对ftp用户设置rwx的默认权限。

就这样,设置完了。相当简单吧?

回过头来,再看看上面对upload目录设置777的权限,似乎也不并不怎么完美,是不是也可能通过acl规则让web用户拥有rwx的权限?当然可以,其实更好,因为这里的文件是web用户自己创建的,里面的文件所有者应该是web用户,777权限似乎高了点;而且如果这是从其它服务器上迁移过来的站点的话,这些文件的所有者可能还会比较乱。

另外,默认acl,只对以后的新建目录有效,而对已有文件,它并不改变其acl,所以,要同时使用上面所述的两个命令,对已有文件(setfacl -R -m u:ftp:rwx .)和以后的新建目录(setfacl -R -d --set u:ftp:rwx .)设置acl.

上面的acl是针对一个用户web设定的,还可以对一个用户组来设置 g:group_name:rwx , 这样对多用户协作状态下会比较有用。

一段apache虚拟主机的配置代码

一段apache虚拟主机的配置代码,包括了对部分目录禁用php解析,apache日志目录等

### Section 3: Virtual Hosts
#
# VirtualHost: If you want to maintain multiple domains/hostnames on your
# machine you can setup VirtualHost containers for them. Most configurations
# use only name-based virtual hosts so the server doesn't need to worry about
# IP addresses. This is indicated by the asterisks in the directives below.
#
# Please see the documentation at
# <URL:http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/vhosts/>
# for further details before you try to setup virtual hosts.
#
# You may use the command line option '-S' to verify your virtual host
# configuration.

#
# Use name-based virtual hosting.
#
NameVirtualHost *:80
#
# NOTE: NameVirtualHost cannot be used without a port specifier
# (e.g. :80) if mod_ssl is being used, due to the nature of the
# SSL protocol.
#

#
# VirtualHost example:
# Almost any Apache directive may go into a VirtualHost container.
# The first VirtualHost section is used for requests without a known
# server name.
#
<VirtualHost *:80>
ServerAdmin webmaster@dummy-host.example.com
DocumentRoot /var/www/html/defsite
#    ServerName unknown-host.example.com
ErrorLog logs/defsite-host.example.com-error_log
CustomLog logs/defsit-host.example.com-access_log common

#    <IfModule mod_php5.c>
#        php_admin_value open_basedir "/var/www/html/vhosts/testsite/html/:/tmp"
#    </IfModule>
#
#    <IfModule suexec.c>
#        SuexecUserGroup web_testsite web_testsite
#    </IfModule>
</VirtualHost>

<VirtualHost *:80>
ServerAdmin tech@mysite.com
DocumentRoot "/var/www/html/vhosts/testsite/html"
ServerName www.testsite.com
ServerAlias job.mysite.com
ErrorLog "logs/testsite-error.log"
CustomLog "logs/testsite-access.log" common
<IfModule mod_php5.c>
php_admin_value open_basedir "/var/www/html/vhosts/testsite/html/:/tmp"
</IfModule>
RewriteLog "/var/www/html/vhosts/testsite/log/rewritelog.log"
</VirtualHost>
<Directory "/var/www/html/vhosts/testsite/html">
AllowOverride All
Options FollowSymLinks
Order allow,deny
Allow from all

#AllowOverride AuthConfig  #this line and below is required to auth,
#  AllowOverride has been configured above, no need to re configure
#    AuthName web_testsite
#    AuthType Basic
#    AuthUserFile /var/www/htpasswd/testsite.htpasswd
#    require valid-user
</Directory>
<Directory "/var/www/html/vhosts/testsite/html/images">
AllowOverride None
Options FollowSymLinks
Order allow,deny
php_admin_flag engine off
Allow from all
</Directory>
<Directory "/var/www/html/vhosts/testsite/html/css">
AllowOverride None
php_admin_flag engine off
</Directory>
<Directory "/var/www/html/vhosts/testsite/html/data">
AllowOverride None
php_admin_flag engine off
</Directory>
<Directory "/var/www/html/vhosts/testsite/html/js">
AllowOverride None
php_admin_flag engine off
</Directory>

<VirtualHost *:80>
ServerAdmin tech@mysite.com
DocumentRoot "/var/www/html/vhosts/www2.mysite.com/html"
ServerName www2.mysite.com
ServerAlias job2.mysite.com
ErrorLog "logs/www2.mysite.com-error.log"
CustomLog "logs/www2.mysite.com-access.log" common
</VirtualHost>
<Directory "/var/www/html/vhosts/www2.mysite.com/html">
AllowOverride All
Options FollowSymLinks
Order allow,deny
Allow from all
</Directory>

<VirtualHost *:80>
ServerAdmin tech@mysite.com
DocumentRoot "/var/www/html/vhosts/z.mysite.com/html"
ServerName z.mysite.com
ErrorLog "logs/z.mysite.com-error.log"
CustomLog "logs/z.mysite.com-access.log" common
</VirtualHost>
<Directory "/var/www/html/vhosts/z.mysite.com/html">
AllowOverride All
Options FollowSymLinks
Order allow,deny
Allow from all
</Directory>

<VirtualHost *:80>
ServerAdmin tech@mysite.com
DocumentRoot "/var/www/html/vhosts/bbs.mysite.net/html"
ServerName bbs.mysite.com
ErrorLog "logs/bbs.mysite.net-error.log"
CustomLog "logs/bbs.mysite.net-access.log" common
</VirtualHost>
<Directory "/var/www/html/vhosts/bbs.mysite.net/html">
AllowOverride All
Options FollowSymLinks
Order allow,deny
Allow from all
</Directory>

centos 6.x下的empathy安装包/rpm

直接上安装包

empathy-2.30_rpm_for_centos_f13

fedora13的二进制包,可以在centos 6.2下成功安装,并正常使用。这些包之间解决了包信赖,应该不再需要其它包;如果真的缺少了某个包,请通过yum 安装。

如果你的centos6安装有pidgin,推荐卸载掉,因为有个rpm包与centos6带的pidgin有冲突。

对于使用QQ的朋友,推荐下载安装这个 https://code.google.com/p/libqq-pidgin/ ,empathy/pidgin自带的QQ协议老了,而不再被tx支持。

centOS 6下通过yum安装php-mssql以使php支持microsoft sql server连接

centos 6下,安装fedoraproject的epel-release源,即可以安装php的mssql模块。

注:epel是fedora开发组为centos开发的附加软件yum源,可以弥补centos上游redhat里缺少的软件包。epel的质量还是相当之高的。

[root@c12 html]# rpm -ivh http://download.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/6/i386/epel-release-6-5.noarch.rpm
[root@c12 html]# rpm -ivh http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/6/i386/epel-release-6-8.noarch.rpm
[root@c12 html]# yum install php-mssql
[root@c12 html]# /etc/init.d/httpd graceful

完成。

phpinfo中可以看到mssql的信息

mssql模块实际还是FreeTDS,其功能主要是在Liunx下能够访问Sybase及MS SQL,官方网站是:http://www.freetds.org/ 。当然也可以手工编译mssql模块到php中,不过通过yum更简单一点。

关于epel源,参看这里 http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/EPEL/zh-cn

本方法来源于centOS 6更新yum以便可裝php-mssql (http://blog.hubin411.com/2011/10/13/centos-6%e6%9b%b4%e6%96%b0yum%e4%bb%a5%e4%be%bf%e5%8f%af%e8%a3%9dphp-mssql/) 阅读该页面请自备梯子。或参看如下转录的核心部分:

tep 1:
# wget http://download.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/6/i386/epel-release-6-5.noarch.rpm    //取得rpm檔案

step 2:
# rpm -ivh epel-release-6-5.noarch.rpm    //安裝取得的rpm檔案

step 3:
# yum update    //更新yum的資源庫

step 4:
# yum install php-mssql    //安裝php-mssql

step 5:
# service httpd restart    //重啟apache伺服器

mysql多表join联查语句错误:#1241 - Operand should contain 1 column(s)

对ecshop系统做一些改造,需要一个三表join的查询,但写出语句却报错了

#1241 - Operand should contain 1 column(s)

语句如下:

SELECT a . * , IFNULL( g.goods_thumb, '' ) AS goods_thumb, g.goods_name AS goods_name_from_goods, g.brand_id, b.brand_name
FROM `eb`.`ec_goods_activity` AS a
LEFT JOIN (`eb`.`ec_goods` AS g , `eb`.`ec_brand` AS b )
ON (a.goods_id = g.goods_id , b.brand_id = g.brand_id)
WHERE a.act_type = '5'
AND a.start_time <= '1333010119'
AND a.end_time >= '1333010119'
AND a.is_finished <2
ORDER BY a.act_id DESC
LIMIT 20

起初死活找不到错误,突然发现ON子句里把条件and错写成逗号了,改正后执行正确,问题解决。

SELECT a. * , IFNULL( g.goods_thumb, '' ) AS goods_thumb, g.goods_name AS goods_name_from_goods, g.brand_id, b.brand_name
FROM `eb`.`ec_goods_activity` AS a
LEFT JOIN (
`eb`.`ec_goods` AS g, `eb`.`ec_brand` AS b
) ON ( a.goods_id = g.goods_id AND b.brand_id = g.brand_id )
WHERE a.act_type = '5'
AND a.start_time = '1333010119'
AND a.is_finished ORDER BY a.act_id DESC
LIMIT 20

网络科普:教你识别钓鱼网站

本文是一篇很久以前只写了个标题的文章。在草稿箱里放了4年多,最近整理博客看其更新时间为 2012年3月19日 @ 22:00,这么久都没有继续写,大概以后也不会续写了,直接发出来算了(2016-10-10 17:20)

(【补记】事实上,本文被当作临时粘贴板用过一次,用来把一个网页上的表格复制成html格式,而帖在编辑器里,并且保存了草稿,应该是wordpress自动保存的,该草稿直到写这个后记之前还是;当然现在已经删除了)

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